# Maths

## Year 2

The year two classes will be following the maths objectives set out in the new National Curriculum which can be viewed here. This year, we have introduced Abacus which is a Maths scheme of work.

Numbers and the Number system

In year two, a priority area at the start of the year is ensuring that children have a solid understanding of number and place value. This includes making sure that children can recognise numbers to 100 and count forwards and backwards from a given number. Once this is secure we work on partitioning numbers into different combinations of tens and ones and being able to compare and order numbers with children being able to give mathematical reasons for their decision.

Following on from addition and subtraction teaching from lower in the school, we use a range of strategies and apparatus to consolidate the concept of adding and taking away. These include using base ten, pictorial representations and a hundred square. We begin by working with single digit numbers and extend to working with two digit numbers and being able to cross tens boundaries. The children are also taught written methods for writing calculations. Ultimately they will have the choice of which strategy they prefer to use in solving problems, including worded problems.

It is important that children develop their ability to recall addition and subtraction facts to aid mental addition and subtraction. We therefore spend time teaching numbers bonds, doubles and near doubles as well as focusing on patterns with number. This leads effectively into the teaching of inverse and applying this strategy to find missing numbers.

Shapes and patterns

Our work on shape includes the recognition and naming of 2D and 3D shapes. We look at ways to sort shapes using their properties and work hard to use the correct mathematical vocabulary to name the properties of these shapes. It is important that we encourage children to recognise both regular and irregular shapes.  We use art in our understanding of shape and look at patterns, repeating patterns and shapes in our world.

Measures

In our measure teaching we ensure that our children understand the term ‘estimate’ and that they can give reasons for their estimate.  They should already have a sound knowledge of length, capacity and mass using non-standard measures so in year two we introduce the children to metric units- metres, kilograms and litres.  The children work on ordering using metric units and begin to read numbered scales such as rulers and scales accurately. This year we begin practising how to measure in centimetres using a ruler accurately and the skill of drawing their own measured lines. As we progress through the year, the children are encouraged to understand and learn the relationship between the different units of measurement e.g. there are 100cm in a metre.

Fractions, position and movement

We begin the year by reinforcing that one-half is one of two equal parts. This is carried out through work with grouping objects and observing halves of a range of shapes. The children then begin to learn about finding one-quarter by developing the understanding that the word fraction means ‘equal parts of a whole’.

As children progress, they complete practical activities where they have to find fractions of quantities (1/3, ¼, 2/4, 3/4 etc) and they learn to recognise equivalent fractions through hands on, visual learning.

Multiplication and Division

Following a secure understanding of addition and subtraction the children begin to apply their knowledge of repeated addition and subtraction to learning how this relates to multiplication and division.

A number of methods such as use of a number line, arrays and the grouping method are  taught so that children can once again choose which method they feel most confident in applying to problems. For division, children choose whether they prefer the repeated subtraction method or a grouping/sharing method. We also look at remainders and how to answer worded problems that contain remainders. An introduction to written methods for tens and ones is planned for the summer term.

Our children use the vocabulary of ‘multiplied by’, ‘divided by’ and ‘groups of’ to talk about their work in this unit.

We encourage rapid recall of multiplication facts of the 2’s, 3’s, 5’s, 10’s times table and to recognise patterns.